1. "Nuclear-Generated Electricity Costs Come in Second in '92," Nuclear Energy INFO (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Council for Energy Awareness, October 1993), p.1.
2. Thomas W. Lippman, "Nearly New A-Plant Going to Scrap Heap," The Washington Post, June 18, 1992, p.A3.
3. Sarah Lyall, "At Shoreham, a Somber Beginning of an End," The New York Times, October 25, 1991, p.B1.
4. United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington D.C., September 16, 1954, in remarks prepared by Chairman Lewis L. Strauss: "It is not too much to expect that our children will enjoy in their homes electrical energy too cheap to meter..."
5. Atomic Industrial Forum, "NERC Says Court Rulings Peril 1985 Power Supply," Press INFO, Number 70, September 1976, p.1.
6. U.S. Council For Energy Awareness, "Historical Profile of U.S. Nuclear Power Development, 1995 Edition," Washington D.C., 1995.
7. Charles Komanoff and Cora Roelofs, Fiscal Fission: The Economic Failure of Nuclear Power, A Report on the Historical Costs of Nuclear Power in the United States (Washington, D.C.: Greenpeace, December 1992), pp.7-8.
8. Bruce Biewald, et. al., Need for and Alternatives to Nuclear Plant License Renewal, Tellus Institute, Boston, MA, March 13, 1992, Table 2.1. The analysis is based on a DOE study, Analysis of Nuclear Plant Construction Costs, DOE/EIA-0485, 1986. Costs in constant 1990 dollars.
10. Energy Information Administration, An Analysis of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Costs, DOE/EIA-0485 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 1986), pp. ix-x;pp.54-71.
11. R. A. Cantor, "Prudency Hearings and Management Audits: Instruments to Investigate the Management Process of Public Utilities," Draft, (Oak Ridge, TN.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, n.d.), p.1.
12. James G. Hewlett, "The Operating Costs and Longevity of Nuclear Power Plants: Evidence from the USA," Energy Policy, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, UK, Vol. 20, No. 7, July 1992, pp.608-622.
13. Energy Information Administration, An Analysis of Nuclear Plant Operating Costs: A 1995 Update, SR/OIAF/95-01 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, April 1995), pp.6-7. Dollar figures assume a 1,000 megawatt reactor.
14. See N. 10, supra, pp. 54.71. See also, MYTHBusters #7: Nuclear Reactor Safety (Washington, D.C.: Safe Energy Communication Council, Winter 1992), pp.3-4; President's Commission on the Accident of Three Mile Island, John G. Kemeny, Chairman, The Need for Change: The Legacy of TMI, October 1979; and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Status of Safety Issues at Licensed Power Plants, NUREG-1435, (Washington, D.C., May 1991), Vol. 1, pp.1-2.
15. MYTHBusters #7: Nuclear Reactor Safety (Washington, D.C.: Safe Energy Communication Council, Winter 1992), p.8.
16. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Aging Nuclear Power Plants: Managing Plant Life and Decommissioning, OTA-E-575 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1993), pp.3-4.
17. Shearson Lehman Brothers, "Should Investors be Concerned About Rising Nuclear Decommissioning Costs?" Electric Utilities Commentary, Vol. 3, No.1, January 6, 1993, Executive Summary.
18. Robert Johnson, "Electric Utilities Study an Old, New Source of Fuel: Firewood," The Wall Street Journal, December 2, 1993, p.A1.
19. Margaret L. Ryan, "EEI Studies Warn Many U.S. Units not Producing Competitively," Nucleonics Week, (Washington, D.C.: McGraw-Hill, March 17, 1994), p.1.
20. Michael Booth, "Fort St. Vrain Symbolizes Power Industry's Meltdown," The Denver Post, February 12, 1995, p.9A.
21. FERC Energy Guidelines, 30 FERC x61,111 YAEC, Docket #ER84-654, February 1, 1985, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.
22. FERC Energy Guidelines, 30 FERC x61,428 YAEC, Docket #ER90-47-000, December 29, 1989, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C.
23. "Officials Raise By $123 Million Estimate of Dismantling Reactor," The New York Times, November 4, 1994, p.A24.
25. See N. 20, supra, p.1.
26. Robert Johnson and Ann de Rouffignac, "Nuclear Utilities Face Immense Expenses in Dismantling Plants," The Wall Street Journal, January 25, 1993, p.A1.
27. Jim Ritter, "Edison Raises Projected Cost To Dismantle Nuclear Plants," Chicago Sun-Times, February 28, 1994, pp.1,14.
28. State of New Hampshire, Nuclear Decommissioning Finance Committee, Docket No. 93-001, Seabrook Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, Testimony of Bruce Biewald and William W. Dougherty on Behalf of the Office of Consumer Advocate, Tellus Institute, Boston, Mass, September 14, 1994, Exhibit (TEL-5).
29. See N. 26, supra.
30. Daniel Borson, Public Citizen Critical Mass Energy Project, Payment Due: A Reactor-by-Reactor Assessment of the Nuclear Industry's $25+ Billion Decommissioning Bill, (Washington, D.C.: Public Citizen, October 11, 1990), pp.47-48.
31. Kathie Durbin and Spencer Heinz, "Changing Estimates Key Trojan Shutdown," The Oregonian, January 6, 1993, p.1.
32. U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Supplemental Rulemaking, Docket Nos. RM95-8-000 and RM94-7-001, 70 FERC 61,357, March 29, 1995, p.199.
33. See N. 28, supra, p.15.
34. See N.16, supra, p.4.
35. MYTHBusters #2: Nuclear Waste Disposal, Winter 1988 and MYTHBusters #8: "Low-Level" Radioactive Waste, Summer 1992, Safe Energy Communication Council, Washington, D.C.
36. Public Law 97.425, Title 42, p.1022.
37. "Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost of the Program Approach for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program," Revision Preliminary Draft, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Contract number: DE-AC01-91RW00134, April 10, 1995, p.33. This figure includes some high-level defense waste costs.
38. "Independent Management and Financial Review: Yucca Mountain Project, Nevada," Preliminary Report , Peterson Consulting Limited Partnership in association with John Reiss, Jr. & Associates Inc. Denver, CO, May 19, 1995, pp.ii-8.
39. U.S. General Accounting Office, Yucca Mountain Project Behind Schedule and Facing Major Scientific Uncertainties, GAO/RCED-93-124, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, May 1993), p.4, and Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, "NWTRB Special Report to Congress and the Secretary of Energy," (Arlington, VA., Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, March 1993), p.4.
40. Ibid. Of the $275 million appropriated for the disposal program in 1992, DOE allotted $109 million to activities related to accepting waste and $106 million to the Yucca Mountain infrastructure .leaving only $60 million for scientific site investigation.
41. See N. 35, MythBusters #8, supra, p.2.
42. U.S. General Accounting Office, Radioactive Waste - Status of Commercial Low-Level Waste Facilities, GAO/RCED-95-67, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, May 1995), pp. 31,34.
43. U.S. General Accounting Office, Nuclear Waste; Comprehensive Review of the Disposal Program Is Needed, GAO/RCED-94-299, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1994). p.2.
44. Average based on data from DOE/EIA Forms 0540(91) and 0095(89), "Electric Sales and Revenue" and "Inventory of Power Plants in the United States," respectively; NARUC's "Residential Electric Bills," Winter 1991-92 and Summer 1992, (NARUC); and 1993 Electrical World Directory of Electric Utilities, 101st edition.
45. Energy Information Administration, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, February 1993), p.65.
46. Albert B. Reynolds, "The Return of Nuclear Power: Nuclear Energy is About to Make a Big Comeback .Just in Time," Omni, December 1993.
47. "O'Leary Answers Senate Energy Questions," The Energy Daily, Volume 21, No.11, January 19, 1993, p.5. Excerpts from written responses provided by Hazel O'Leary to the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee in preparation for her scheduled confirmation hearing on that date.
48. Mo Ying W. Seto, Kevin G. Rose, Susan D. Abbott, Robert W. Burke and M. Douglas Watson, Jr., Nuclear Power .A Current Risk Assessment (New York, N.Y.: Moody's Investment Service, April 1993), p.3.
49. "Nuclear Industry Moves to Clean up its Image," Daily Herald, Arlington Heights, IL., September 26, 1993, Section 3, p.4.
50. Andrew Maykuth, "Industry Looks to New Technology, New Markets," The Philadelphia Inquirer, March 27, 1994, p.D1.
51. Andrew Bary, "Short Circuit: Why Electric Utility Stocks are Losing Power," Barron's, Vol. LXXIII, No. 45. November 8, 1993, pp.19, 60.
52. Charles M. Studness, "The Geography of Electric Rates," Public Utilities Fortnightly, October 1, 1993, p.36. See also, Armond Cohen and Steve Kihm, "The Political Economy of Retail Wheeling, or How to Not Re-fight the Last War," The Electricity Journal, (MSB Energy Associates and the Conservation Law Foundation, April 1994), p.51.
53. See N. 19, supra, p.12.
54. Hallie Yacknin, Attorney for the Division of Ratepayer Advocates, California Public Utilities Commission, "Division of Ratepayer Advocates' Petition for Modification of Decision 93-03-075", August 26, 1994, p.4.
55. Christopher J. Warner and Mark R. Huffman, Attorneys for Pacific Gas and Electric Company, "Joint Motion to Adopt Proposed Settlement", January 5, 1995, p.2, and Hallie Yacknin, Attorney for the Division of Ratepayer Advocates, "Opinion on Joint Motion to Adopt Proposed Settlement," May 24, 1995, p.7.
56. Gordon MacKerron, "Nuclear Costs: Why Do They Keep Rising?," Energy Policy, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, UK, Vol. 20, No. 7, July 1992, pp.641-652.
57. David E. Lilienthal, The Journals of David E. Lilienthal, The Road to Change, 1955-1959, Vol. IV (New York, N.Y.: Harper and Row, 1959), p.21, as cited in Michel Damian, "Nuclear Power: The Ambiguous Lessons of History," Energy Policy, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, UK, Vol. 20, No. 7, July 1992, p.606.
58. See N. 6, supra.
59. Daniel Southerland, "TVA to Halt Construction of Last 3 Nuclear Power Plants," The Washington Post, Dec. 12,1994, pp. A1, A10.
60. Washington International Energy Group, 1995 Electric Utility Outlook, (Washington, D.C., January 1995), p.31, and Washington International Energy Group,1994 Electric Utility Outlook, (Washington D.C., January 1994), p.20.
61. Washington International Energy Group,1995 Electric Utility Outlook, (Washington, D.C., January 1995), p.30.
62. Washington International Energy Group, 1994 Electric Utility Outlook, (Washington D.C., January 1994), p.33.
63. "RCG Analyst Says $70 Billion At Risk in U.S. Nuke Plants," The Energy Daily, Volume 23, Number 77, April 24, 1995, p.1.
64. Jim Riccio and Michael Grynberg, A Roll of the Dice, Public Citizen's Critical Mass Energy Project, (Washington, D.C., April 1995), pp.12-14.
65. Nuclear Power Oversight Committee, Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants: Third Annual Update (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Council for Energy Awareness, November 1993), pp.III-85.III-86.
66. CRS Issue Brief, "Energy Efficiency: A New National Outlook?" Fred J. Sissine, Science Policy Research Division, Congressional Research Service, Washington, D.C., May 26, 1995.
67. Energy Information Administration, Federal Energy Subsidies: Direct and Indirect Interventions in Energy Markets, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, November 1992), p.152.
68. See N. 7, supra, p.32.
69. Douglas N. Koplow, Federal Energy Subsidies: Energy, Environmental, and Fiscal Impacts, (Washington, D.C.: The Alliance to Save Energy, April 1993), pp.14-24.
70. Price-Anderson Act, Pub. L. No. 85-256, 71 Stat. 576 (1957).
71. Jeffrey A. Dubin and Geoffrey S. Rothwell, Subsidy to the Commercial Nuclear Power Industry Through the Price-Anderson Liability Limit, CEPR Publication No. 186, (Stanford, Calif.: Center for Economic Policy Research at Stanford University, February 1990), p.74.
72. See N. 65, supra, Appendix B, Volume 1, p.B5-5.
73. U.S. General Accounting Office, Nuclear Regulation: A Perspective on Liability Protection for a Nuclear Plant Accident, GAO/RCEP-87-124 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1987), p.20.
74. "The World Nuclear Industry Status Report:1992," Greenpeace, WISE-Paris and Worldwatch Institute, May 1992, p.12.
75. "Renewable Energy and the National Energy Strategy," Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, April 30, 1992. p.28.
76. Ibid, A-6, p.66.